Tax Deducted at Source (TDS)

In finance and taxation, you might often hear the term ‘TDS.’ But what is TDS? Simply put, it stands for “Tax Deducted at Source”. This financial term is commonly known by other names in various countries, such as “withholding tax” or “pay-as-you-earn tax”.

Imagine you’ve got a piggy bank, and every time you earn some money, a small part of it goes directly into the piggy bank before the rest reaches your hands. This way, by the end of the year, without you having to remember, a part of your earnings is already saved up in the piggy bank. This concept, when applied to taxes, is what TDS is all about.

TDS stands for “Tax Deducted at Source”. Here’s a simple way to understand it

When someone owes you money, be it salary, rent, or payment for a service you provided, they don’t give you the full amount all at once. Instead, they take a tiny portion of it (the tax part) and send it straight to the government. What you get is the remaining amount after this small deduction.

For example, let’s say you did a job that earned you Rs. 100. If there’s a TDS rate of 10%, the person paying you will first cut Rs. 10 (that’s the tax) and send it to the government. You’ll then receive Rs. 90. The Rs. 10 isn’t lost – it’s just your tax being paid in advance.

What is TDS?

TDS is a method of tax collection wherein certain percentages of amounts are deducted by the deductor at the time of making/crediting a certain specific nature of payment to the deductee and the deducted amount is remitted to the government account. This process ensures that the government can collect tax at the very point of income generation rather than waiting for the end of the financial year.

Types of TDS

1. Salary

This is the money you earn from your job. If you’re an employee, your employer will handle the TDS deductions based on various criteria like your total earnings, exemptions, and deductions.

2. Interest from Banks

If you’ve saved money in a bank’s fixed deposit or some savings schemes, the bank pays you some extra money over time as interest. This interest is often subject to TDS.

3. Rent Payments

Do you own a property that you’ve rented out? The rent you receive from this property can have TDS deductions. This applies whether your tenant is an individual or a company.

4. Payments to Freelancers or Contractors

Freelancers or contractors provide services without being regular employees. When they get paid for their work, this payment often has TDS deducted.

5. Commission Payments

People who earn money based on sales or deals they facilitate (like a real estate agent selling a house) earn commissions. These commissions can be subject to TDS.

6. Fees for Professional Services

Professionals like lawyers, consultants, or architects charge fees for their specialized services. When they get paid, a portion can be deducted as TDS.

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What are TDS rates?

The rate of TDS – how much is deducted – can vary based on the type of income. Here’s a simple explanation of the typical rates.

1. Salary

The TDS rate here is a bit complicated. It’s not a fixed percentage but depends on your total income, age, and various tax exemptions and deductions you’re eligible for.

2. Interest from Banks

Usually, 10% of the interest amount is deducted as TDS. So if you earn Rs. 100 as interest, you’ll typically get Rs. 90 after TDS deduction.

3. Rent Payments

For individuals If someone is paying you rent, they will generally deduct 10% of the rent amount as TDS before paying you. For company payments If a company rents your property, the TDS rate is often lower, around 2%.

4. Payments to Freelancers or Contractors

The TDS rate can vary here, but there’s often a standard percentage that’s deducted before paying the freelancer or contractor.

5. Commission Payments

The TDS rate for commissions typically ranges between 5% to 10%. So, if you earn a commission of Rs. 100, expect to receive somewhere between Rs. 90 to Rs. 95 after TDS deductions.

6. Fees for Professional Services

Like freelance payments, TDS on professional fees can vary. However, there’s often a standard rate applied.

Rules for Tax Deducted at Source

Imagine you’re at a shop, and you only get a shopping bag if you buy more than five items. Similarly, TDS doesn’t apply to every single payment you make or receive. There’s a minimum amount, or “threshold”, that needs to be reached before TDS kicks in.

Now, for those who are responsible for taking out this TDS (let’s call them “deductors”), there’s an extra step. Just like you need a membership card to enter an exclusive club, these deductors need a special ID card called Tax Deduction and Collection Account Number (TAN). It’s their unique identification.

Whenever they’re dealing with TDS matters, like filing returns or making payments, they need to mention their TAN, just like how you’d show your ID at certain places. It ensures everything is tracked correctly and keeps the tax system organised. 

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What Is the TDS Rate on Salary?

When it comes to salary, not everyone is taxed at the same rate. Think of it like climbing a ladder the higher you earn, the more tax you might need to pay. This system ensures that those who earn more contribute more towards the country’s development, while those who earn less aren’t burdened heavily.

Your salary falls into specific categories or “brackets”, and each bracket has a different TDS rate. Here’s a simple breakdown

  • For those who earn up to Rs. 2.5 Lakhs a year, there’s good news! You don’t have to pay any tax through TDS. It’s like a basic amount that the government believes you need for your expenses.

  • If you earn between Rs. 2.5 Lakhs to Rs. 5 Lakhs, a small chunk of your salary, specifically 5%, will be set aside for tax before you receive your pay. 

  • Those earning from Rs. 5 Lakhs to Rs. 10 Lakhs are a step higher on our ladder. Hence, a bigger portion, 20%, is deducted as tax.

  • And for the high earners, those making more than Rs. 10 Lakhs, the government takes 30% as tax. 

However, keep in mind that sometimes there might be extra charges or “surcharges” added to these rates. It’s always good to stay updated.

Here’s a table to make it clearer

Income Bracket TDS Rate

Up to Rs. 2.5 Lakhs


Rs. 2.5 Lakhs to Rs. 5 Lakhs


Rs. 5 Lakhs to Rs. 10 Lakhs


Over Rs. 10 Lakhs


How to File TDS Returns?

Filing TDS returns is a systematic process

  1. Collect all TDS Certificates

    Before beginning, gather all your TDS certificates. These are essential documents that show the amount of tax that has been deducted from your income.

  2. Download the Right Form

    Different types of income require different forms for TDS returns. Make sure to download the one relevant to the kind of TDS return you’re filing.

  3. Fill in the Details

    Once you have the right form, fill it out meticulously. Ensure that every detail, from personal information to income specifics, is accurate to avoid any discrepancies.

  4. Online Submission

    After filling out the form, submit it through the official government tax portal. This online process ensures quick and efficient tax filing.

  5. Settle Any Outstanding Tax

    If, after deductions, you still owe any tax to the government, ensure you pay the remaining amount before the deadline.

  6. Verification of Your Return

    Once everything is submitted, you’ll need to verify your return. This can be done using a unique code or a digital signature, ensuring the authenticity of the information you’ve provided.

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TDS returns have specific due dates throughout the year, based on which quarter the income was earned. Here’s a simple breakdown

  • For the first quarter (Q1), which covers April to June, returns need to be filed by July 31st.

  • For the second quarter (Q2), spanning from July to September, the deadline is October 31st.

  • The third quarter (Q3) includes October to December, and you should file returns by January 31st of the next year.

  • Lastly, for the fourth quarter (Q4), which is from January to March, the deadline extends to May 31st.

Frequently Asked Questions

TDS is deducted to ensure the government receives its due share of taxes on time, even before the income reaches the recipient. It’s a proactive measure to collect tax at the source of income.

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