What is Peer to Peer (P2P) Lending? Meaning & How it Works

Peer-to-peer, commonly known as P2P, is a decentralised transaction that facilitates direct interactions between individuals without needing an intermediary.

In the Indian financial sector, P2P services are gaining traction as they offer a more democratic approach to lending and borrowing. Also known as “person-to-person” or “social lending,” P2P services reshape traditional financial systems.

Understanding of Peer to Peer (P2P) Lending?

Peer-to-peer (P2P) services refer to any platform or mechanism enabling direct individual transactions. In finance, P2P services often manifest as lending platforms, where individuals can lend or borrow money directly from each other, bypassing traditional financial institutions like banks.

Types of P2P Services

In India, P2P services aren’t just confined to lending; they also extend to crowdfunding, direct payments, and even asset trading. Some popular types include P2P lending platforms, crowdfunding websites, and decentralised trading platforms.

Benefits to Users

P2P services provide quicker access to funds, often with fewer bureaucratic hurdles. For lenders, it can offer higher returns compared to traditional investment options.

For borrowers, P2P platforms often provide more flexible terms. They may be more willing to approve loans for those struggling to secure loans from traditional financial institutions.

Risks and Challenges

The absence of a regulatory body in certain types of P2P transactions can expose participants to fraud. Even in regulated P2P lending, the risk of borrower default exists, and lenders must exercise due diligence.

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History of P2P

The concept of Peer to Peer (P2P) transactions is not new; it dates back to the barter system, where individuals traded goods and services directly without intermediaries.

However, the modern version of P2P, facilitated by technology, started gaining prominence in the early 2000s with the advent of technology.

Financial P2P in India

Peer to Peer lending started gaining attention in India around 2012, much later than its Western counterparts. The concept was initially met with scepticism due to a lack of regulation and the risks associated with decentralised transactions.

However, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) stepped in. It began regulating P2P lending platforms in 2017, giving the sector much-needed credibility and a framework within which to operate.

Evolution and Growth

Over the years, P2P services have evolved and diversified. From crowdfunding for startups to online marketplaces for asset trading, the scope of P2P has expanded significantly.

In India, P2P lending platforms are now considered viable alternatives to traditional banking systems, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and individual borrowers with limited access to formal credit systems.

How Does It Work?

Peer-to-peer (P2P) platforms operate on a simple yet effective principle: connecting individuals who want to lend money with those who want to borrow without involving a financial institution as a middleman.

The Lending Process

In a typical peer to peer lending scenario, the platform lists various borrowers along with details like the purpose of the loan, the amount required, and the interest rate. Lenders can browse through these listings and choose whom to lend to based on their risk appetite and investment goals.

Risk Assessment

Most P2P platforms have their own risk assessment mechanisms. They evaluate borrowers based on credit scores, financial history, and other relevant factors. This information is usually made available to potential lenders to aid in decision-making.

Transactions and Repayments

Once a lender decides to fund a borrower, the platform facilitates the transaction. The money is transferred directly from the lender to the borrower, and the repayment schedule is set.

Most platforms also handle the collection of repayments and distribute them back to the lender, often deducting a small fee for the services rendered.

Regulatory Compliance in India

In India, P2P lending platforms must comply with RBI guidelines, which mandate transparency, risk assessment, and information sharing, among other things. These regulations protect borrowers and lenders, ensuring the peer to peer marketplace functions efficiently and ethically.

Flexibility and Customisation

Borrowers can often negotiate terms that suit them, and lenders can diversify their portfolios by lending small amounts to multiple borrowers.

Investing in P2P

Return on Investment

In India, P2P platforms often offer interest rates significantly higher than what is available through traditional investment avenues.


Investors can lend small amounts to multiple borrowers, thereby spreading the risk. This is particularly useful for diversifying their investment portfolio beyond stocks and bonds.


P2P platforms often offer a range of options for investors, from short-term loans to long-term investments. This allows investors to choose terms that align with their financial goals and risk tolerance.

Regulatory Oversight

In India, P2P platforms are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), ensuring they adhere to certain guidelines and norms. This regulatory oversight adds an additional layer of safety for investors.

Unlike mutual funds, where a fund manager makes all the decisions, P2P investments give investors direct control over whom to lend to based on their own assessment and risk tolerance.

Risks in P2P

Default Risk

The most obvious risk in peer to peer lending is that of borrower default. Unlike traditional financial institutions, P2P platforms do not provide any guarantee on the loans issued.

Regulatory Risks

Although Peer to peer platforms in India are regulated by the RBI, the sector is still relatively new, and regulations can change. Any sudden change in regulatory norms can impact the functioning of these platforms and, consequently, the investor’s returns.

Platform Risk

There’s also the risk associated with this platform itself. The platform could go out of business, face legal issues, or suffer a security breach, which would affect both lenders and borrowers.

Lack of Liquidity

P2P investments are usually not as liquid as other investment options. It might not be as straightforward as selling shares or withdrawing a fixed deposit if you need to pull out your investment quickly.

Market Risks

Like any other investment, P2P lending is subject to market risks. Economic downturns, rising unemployment, or adverse policy changes can affect the ability of borrowers to repay loans.

Taxation Information on P2P

Tax on Interest Earned

For lenders, the interest earned from peer to peer lending is taxable. It needs to be declared under the head “Income from Other Sources” when filing Income Tax Returns. Depending on your total income, this interest is taxed at your applicable slab rate.

TDS Deductions

In India, some P2P platforms may deduct Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) on the interest income generated, which can be claimed while filing tax returns.

Reporting and Compliance

Both lenders and borrowers are responsible for accurately reporting their P2P transactions and income. Failure to report can result in penalties and legal consequences per the Income Tax Act.

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Pros & Cons of P2P

Peer-to-peer platforms offer a variety of benefits but come with their own challenges and risks.


High Returns

P2P often offers higher returns for lenders than traditional investment avenues.

Portfolio Diversification

P2P lending allows investors to diversify their portfolios.


Both borrowers and lenders can set terms that suit their financial needs.

Democratisation of Finance

P2P platforms make credit more accessible, especially for those who might find it difficult to secure loans from traditional financial institutions.


Risk of Default

The most significant risk for lenders is the possibility of borrower default.

Lack of Regulation

While P2P platforms in India are regulated, the framework still evolves, leading to some regulatory risks.

Liquidity Concerns

P2P investments are not as liquid as other investments.

Tax Implications

The interest earned is taxable, which can impact the net returns for the lender.


Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending has emerged as a powerful alternative to traditional financial systems, particularly in India. It offers high returns for investors and easier access to credit for borrowers.

However, like any other financial instrument, it comes with its own risks and complexities.

Understanding the regulatory landscape, taxation implications, and risk factors can make your P2P experience rewarding yet secure.

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Frequently Asked Questions

P2P lending in India is regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), which adds a layer of safety. However, like any investment, it comes with risks, primarily the risk of borrower default.

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