Understanding Put Writing in the Indian Financial Market

Put writing is a popular and effective technique in options trading, particularly in the Indian financial market. This involves selling put options on underlying assets, allowing investors to profit from the premiums received. Covered put writing, where the investor holds the underlying asset, can provide downside protection and generate income. In this post, we will explore the concept of put writing, delve into covered put writing, and provide real-life examples.

What is Put Writing?

Put writing is a popular strategy in options trading that involves selling put options on underlying assets. To understand this concept, grasp the basic concepts of options trading.
An option is a financial derivative that gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy (in the case of a call option) or sell (in the case of a put option) a specified asset, known as the underlying asset, at a predetermined price, called the strike price, within a specified period.
When investors sell put options to other market participants, they sell these options. By doing so, they receive a premium, the amount paid by the buyer of the put option. This premium is compensation for taking on the obligation to buy the underlying asset at the strike price if the buyer exercises their right to sell.

These instruments enable market participants to hedge against potential losses by offsetting risks associated with price fluctuations. For example, a farmer can use a derivative contract, such as a futures contract, to lock in a price for their crops before harvest, protecting themselves from potential declines in market prices.

Derivatives also facilitate price speculation, allowing investors to profit from anticipated changes in the underlying asset’s value. Traders can utilise options contracts, which grant the right but not the obligation to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price to profit from upward and downward price movements. This flexibility makes derivatives valuable for investors seeking to capitalise on market volatility.

Moreover, derivatives offer opportunities to access assets or markets that may be inaccessible or prohibitively expensive. Market participants can exchange cash flows or risks associated with different financial instruments, such as interest rates or currencies, through swap agreements without direct ownership. This allows investors to diversify their portfolios and gain exposure to a broader range of investments.

Put writing differs from simply buying or selling stocks, providing the investor additional flexibility and income opportunities. By selling these options, investors can generate income through the premiums received. Additionally, suppose the underlying asset’s price does not reach or fall below the strike price in that case, the put option expires worthless, allowing the seller to keep the premium as profit.
Note that selling put options carries certain risks. Suppose the underlying asset’s price falls significantly below the strike price. In that case, the seller of the put option may be obligated to purchase the asset at a higher price than its market value. Therefore, thoroughly analyse the market conditions and the potential risks associated with this strategy before implementing it.

What is Call Writing?

Call writing is a strategy in options trading where investors sell call options on an underlying asset. In this approach, the seller, or writer, of the call option agrees to sell the underlying asset to the buyer at a predetermined price, known as the strike price, within a specified timeframe. In exchange for this obligation, the call writer receives a premium from the call buyer. Call writing can generate income, especially in a market where the investor believes the underlying asset’s price will remain below the strike price. If the price does not surpass the strike price by the expiration date, the call option expires worthless, and the call writer keeps the premium as profit. However, it’s crucial to recognise the associated risks, as significant price increases in the underlying asset can result in potential losses for the call writer.

Who Should Opt for Put Writing?

Investors who might benefit from put writing typically have a moderate to high-risk tolerance, a solid understanding of the options market, and a long-term investment horizon. This strategy requires a certain level of market experience and knowledge of analysing underlying assets.

Recommended Read: What are Bullish Options Strategies?

It is also suitable for investors who have a bullish or neutral outlook on the underlying assets they are trading. By selling put options, they can generate income while still maintaining the opportunity to buy the assets if they reach a specified price. Investors often use this strategy to enhance their portfolio’s returns or protect existing positions.

It’s important for investors considering writing to assess their overall financial strategies and investment goals. They should consider their portfolio diversification, income requirements, and risk appetite.


Follow these key steps to effectively implement the put writing strategy and maximise its potential benefits –

  • Identifying the right stocks: Conduct thorough research and analysis to identify stocks that align with your investment goals and have strong fundamentals.

  • Selecting strike prices:
    Determine the prices at which you are comfortable selling the put options. Consider the desired level of downside protection and the potential for stock acquisition at a lower price.

  • Understanding expiration dates: Familiarise yourself with the expiration dates of the put options. Consider the time frame in which you anticipate the stock to reach the desired price or the market conditions to remain favourable.

  • Managing trades: Stay proactive in managing your trades. Regularly monitor the performance of the underlying stock and assess whether adjustments or closing positions are necessary. Consider adjusting strike prices or rolling the options forward.

Advantages And Disadvantages

Covered put writing is a popular options trading strategy that offers several advantages for investors in the Indian market.
One of the primary benefits is the opportunity to generate premium income. By selling put options, investors receive upfront premiums, which can provide a consistent and steady income stream. This income can be particularly attractive for income-focused investors or those looking to supplement their existing portfolio returns.

Besides, it can serve as a hedging strategy. By selling puts, investors can protect their existing stock holdings against potential downside risk. If the stock price falls below the strike price, the investor must buy the stock at that price, effectively lowering their average cost basis. This can provide a cushion against market volatility and potential losses.
Another advantage is the potential to acquire stocks at a lower price. If the stock price remains above the strike price until the option expires, the investor keeps the premium income and does not have to buy the stock. This can be beneficial if there is a particular stock the investor wants to acquire at a lower price but is not willing to purchase at the current market value.
However, consider the risks associated with this strategy. One of the main risks is potential loss. If the stock price falls below the strike price, the investor is obligated to buy the stock at that price, even if the market value is significantly lower. This can result in a loss if the stock continues to decline in value.

Market volatility is another risk to consider. Fluctuations in the market can impact the value of the underlying stock and the price of the options. This can lead to higher premiums and potential losses if the stock price moves unfavourably.

Put Writing Strategies

Put writing strategies encompass a range of techniques that options traders can employ to maximise their potential profits and manage risk effectively.
One commonly used strategy is naked puts, where traders sell put options without owning the underlying stock. This approach best suits bullish market conditions when the trader believes the stock price will remain stable or increase. By selling naked puts, traders collect premium income upfront, but they should be prepared to purchase the stock at the strike price if the option is exercised.
Another one is married puts, which involves buying shares of stock and simultaneously purchasing put options for protection. This strategy is often implemented when the trader has a long-term bullish outlook on a particular stock but wants to limit potential losses in case of a market downturn.
Married puts provide downside protection, as the put options allow traders to sell the stock at the strike price even if its market value declines.

For more neutral or slightly bullish traders, bull put spreads can be an effective strategy. This involves selling one put option at a higher strike price and simultaneously buying a put option with a lower strike price.
The goal is to profit from the premium received while limiting potential losses. Bull put spreads work best in stable or slightly rising markets, where the trader anticipates minimal downside risk and aims to benefit from time decay.
Note that each strategy has its own advantages and considerations. Naked puts offer higher potential returns but come with unlimited risk, while married puts provide downside protection at the expense of higher upfront costs. Bull put spreads offer a balanced approach combining income generation and limited risk.


A put writing strategy can be beneficial in various market conditions, but it carries risks that should be carefully considered before implementation. With its solid understanding and potential outcomes, investors can make informed decisions and potentially see positive results in their investment portfolios.

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