Systematic Transfer Plans – Meaning, Types & Benefits
Systematic Transfer Plans – Meaning, Types & Benefits
Investing in mutual funds offers various strategies to manage your wealth. The Systematic Transfer Plan (STP) is a prudent option, especially for those seeking to balance risk and reward over time. It’s a strategy designed to capitalize on the mutual fund market’s potential while aiming to protect against its volatility.
What is STP in Mutual Fund?
A Systematic Transfer Plan is a savvy investment method that mutual fund offer. It’s a plan that permits investors to move a set sum of money from one type of mutual fund to another periodically.
This tactic is especially helpful for investors who want to shift their money from a debt fund, which is generally safer, to an equity fund, which has more risk but also the chance for higher returns. The whole idea is to do this bit by bit over time.
The main draw of using it is that it allows for ‘rupee cost averaging’. This means that because you’re investing at different times and at various market levels, the average cost of your equity shares evens out. This can be a good defence against the ups and downs of the market.
With this systematic plan, you start with a bigger amount in a debt fund, which is a mutual fund that invests in bonds or other debt instruments and tends to be less risky. Once that’s in place, you set up the plan to automatically move a portion of that money to an equity fund at regular intervals—this could be monthly, quarterly, etc. Equity funds are those that invest in stocks and can offer higher returns but come with higher risks.
How Does STP Work?
A Systematic Transfer Plan works on the principle of regular transfers. Investors initially park a lump sum in a debt fund and set up an STP to a chosen equity fund. At predetermined intervals, a fixed sum is transferred from the debt fund to the equity fund. This process aids in navigating market fluctuations more smoothly by averaging the cost of equity purchases over time.
Types of STP
Systematic Transfer Plans are not one-size-fits-all. They come in different types, each serving a different investment strategy or goal.
In a Fixed STP, the investor transfers a fixed sum from one mutual fund to another. This is the most common type, where a predetermined amount is moved at regular intervals. It’s straightforward and predictable, making it a popular choice for those who like simplicity and consistency in their investment strategy.
Capital Appreciation STP
The Capital Appreciation STP takes a slightly different approach. Here, only the profit part of the investment is transferred to the equity fund, not the principal. This method suits those who wish to keep their principal amount secure while still trying to capture any growth through equity exposure.
As the name suggests, a Flexible STP offers more leeway in how much money is transferred. The investor can decide to transfer a variable amount. The minimum transfer amount is fixed, but the investor can choose to transfer a higher amount depending on the availability of surplus funds. This type is useful for those whose income might be inconsistent every month.
A Systematic Transfer Plan is designed to offer investors the convenience and strategy required for effective investment management. Here are its key features broken down for clarity:
A systematic plan grants the flexibility to choose how often transfers should occur—monthly, quarterly, or on any other regular schedule. This allows investors to align their investment strategy with their cash flow needs and market outlook.
Market Opportunity Capitalisation
By enabling the strategic transfer of funds, it allows investors to take advantage of market conditions. For instance, investors can move funds from debt to equity during market lows to purchase more units and vice versa.
Investment Automation for Discipline
The automated nature helps maintain discipline in investing. By setting up an STP, investors ensure regular investments without manually moving funds each time, fostering a habit of consistent savings.
Control Over Investment Amount
Investors can decide the amount that gets transferred with each instalment. This feature allows them to start with a smaller amount and increase it as their comfort with market dynamics grows.
Choice of Source and Target Funds
STPs are not limited to transfers within the same fund house. Investors can choose which funds to transfer from and to, allowing for greater diversification and risk management.
Benefits of STP
Here are the various benefits of Systematic Transfer Plans broken down into key points:
Rupee Cost Averaging
By transferring fixed amounts at regular intervals, it enables investors to purchase more units when prices are low and fewer units when prices are high. This strategy can potentially lower the average cost per unit over time, mitigating the risk of market timing.
It allows investors to reallocate investments from debt to equity (or vice versa) systematically, helping maintain the desired asset allocation. This flexibility ensures the portfolio remains aligned with the investor’s risk appetite and investment goals.
The automated nature means that transfers happen without investor intervention. This process instils a habit of regular investing, which can be more effective than attempting to time the market.
Mitigates Market Volatility
By spreading the investment over a period, it reduces the risk of investing a large amount in volatile market conditions in one go. This systematic approach can lead to better returns in fluctuating markets.
Investors enjoy the convenience of hassle-free transfers. Once the STP is set up, the transfers between funds happen automatically per the chosen frequency.
Efficient Use of Funds
Instead of having idle money lying in a bank account, an STP ensures that the funds are put to work efficiently by moving them into potentially higher-yielding assets.
Invest in a STP
To invest in an STP, one must typically have a lump sum, which is invested into a more stable fund, like a debt fund. From there, the STP takes over, periodically transferring amounts into more aggressive funds, thus maintaining a balance between stability and growth potential.
Tax Treatment of STP
The tax implications of a Systematic Transfer Plan are a critical aspect to understand before opting for this investment strategy. Here’s a detailed look at how the transfers are taxed:
When you initiate a transfer under an STP, each movement of funds from one mutual fund to another is considered two separate transactions: a redemption from the source fund and a purchase in the destination fund. Consequently, each redemption is subject to capital gains tax, which varies depending on the holding period of the investment.
Short-term Capital Gains
If the units of the debt fund are held for a shorter period, the gains are treated as short-term capital gains (STCG). These gains are taxed according to the income tax slab rates applicable to the investor.
Long-term Capital Gains
For units held for a longer period, the gains qualify as long-term capital gains (LTCG). The tax rate for LTCG from debt funds is 20% with indexation benefits. Indexation allows adjusting the purchase price of the investments to account for inflation, which can lower the taxable gains.
Equity Fund Transfers
When the transfer is to an equity fund, the holding period for determining the nature of capital gains is different. Equity investments are considered long-term if held for more than 12 months. The LTCG over ₹1 lakh on equity funds is taxed at 10% without the benefit of indexation.
Things to Remember when Investing with Systematic Transfer Plan
As previously discussed, every transfer is treated as a redemption and a new investment, with tax obligations for each redemption. Understanding the distinction between short-term and long-term capital gains and how they apply to your transfers is essential to avoid unexpected tax liabilities.
Entry and Exit Loads
Many mutual funds impose charges when you enter (entry load) or leave (exit load) a fund. While entry loads are less common nowadays, exit loads are still prevalent. These fees can reduce the effective return on your investment, especially if the transfer plan involves frequent transfers.
STPs are not one-size-fits-all. They come in various types, such as fixed, capital appreciation, and flexi STP. Each type suits different investment strategies and goals. For instance, a fixed STP regularly transfers a fixed sum from one fund to another, which may be preferable for investors seeking consistent investment growth. On the other hand, a flexi STP allows for the transfer of variable amounts, which could be advantageous for those looking to capitalise on market movements.
An STP can be a smart way to invest in mutual funds, offering a balanced approach to wealth growth. By understanding the intricacies of STPs and considering personal financial objectives, investors can make informed decisions that align with their long-term investment strategies.