Understanding Face Value in Share Market

In today’s world, where we are constantly bombarded with advertisements and sales pitches, the term “face value” has become a common phrase. But what exactly is the meaning of face value? Is it just a superficial term used to describe the appearance of something? Or is there a deeper significance to it? 

In this post, we will delve into its meaning and how it is used in different contexts. By the end, you will clearly understand this seemingly simple yet crucial concept and its applications in our daily lives. 

What is a Face Value?

The face value of a share refers to the nominal or par value assigned to a security by the issuer. It represents the initial value of a security when it is issued and serves as the basis for various calculations and transactions in the financial markets. Typically, it is stated on the share certificate or bond and remains constant throughout the security life, regardless of market fluctuations.

It is significant for several reasons. Firstly, it helps determine the price at which the security is initially sold to investors. Depending on market conditions and investor demand, this price may be at a premium or a discount to this value. Secondly, it plays a crucial role in calculating the interest or dividend payments associated with the security. 

Moreover, it is essential for the redemption or maturity of a security. At the end of its term, a bond or debenture will be repaid to the investor at its face value. Similarly, in the case of stocks, it determines the minimum price at which a shareholder can sell their shares in the market.

Importance of Face Value

The face value of a share holds significant importance in the financial world, particularly in the context of bonds and stocks, as it directly influences investment decisions. Investors often look at this value in the stock market to assess the intrinsic worth of a security. While it remains constant throughout the life of security, it provides a starting point for determining its market value and potential returns.

It represents the amount repaid to the bondholder upon maturity. It is crucial in evaluating a bond investment’s yield and potential profitability. If the market price of a bond is below its face value, it is trading at a discount, which implies higher potential returns. Conversely, suppose the market price is above this value. In that case, the bond trades at a premium, indicating lower potential returns.

In the case of stocks, it has relatively less significance compared to its market value. However, it is still a reference point for corporate actions, such as stock splits or dividend calculations. Investors may consider the face value of a share while assessing its fundamental value or when comparing it to other securities in the market.

Face Value Formula

The face value in the stock market is pivotal when calculating bond interest payments. The basic interest payment formula is used, which is:

Interest Payment = Face Value x Annual Coupon Rate

For instance, if a bond has a face value of INR 1,000 and an annual coupon rate of 5%, the interest payment per year would be Rs. 1,000 * 0.05 = Rs. 50.

The total interest payment over the bond’s term is calculated using the face value formula, which is:

Total Interest Payment = Face Value x Coupon Rate x Number of Coupon Periods

If the same bond was held for 10 years, the total interest payment would be Rs. 1,000 * 0.05 * 10 = Rs. 500. These formulas are vital when assessing potential returns and profitability from bond investments.

Face Value in Case of a Stock Split

During a stock split, the face value of a share is adjusted to reflect the new total number of shares. A stock split occurs when a company divides its existing shares into multiple shares. For example, in a 2-for-1 stock split, each share is split into two, halving this value. This adjustment does not affect the overall market value of the shares owned by shareholders. However, it does have implications for shareholders.

Firstly, a lower face value after a stock split often increases the number of shares held by shareholders. This can make the shares more affordable and accessible to more investors. Further, a stock split can generate increased trading activity and liquidity in the market, as the lower value encourages more buying and selling of shares.

Also, shareholders often see a stock split as a positive sign, signaling that the company is confident in its prospects. It can create a perception of growth and attract new investors, potentially driving up the share price. However, it’s important to note that the split does not guarantee an increase in the stock’s value.

Calculating Dividends

Calculating dividends requires several steps in which the face value of a stock plays a key role. To compute the dividend amount, you need to consider this value per share and the dividend rate set by the company. It signifies the nominal value assigned to each share, typically fixed at a certain amount, such as Rs. 10.

Suppose a company’s shares have a face value of Rs. 10 per share and declare a dividend rate of 5%. To calculate the dividend per share, multiply this value by the dividend rate (10 x 0.05), resulting in a dividend of Rs. 0.50 per share.

To calculate the total dividend payout, multiply the dividend per share by the number of shares an investor holds. For instance, if an investor holds 500 shares, the dividend payout would be Rs. 0.50 multiplied by 500, equalling Rs. 250.

Difference Between the Face Value and Market Value

Understanding the difference between face value and market value is crucial for investors. While this value provides a nominal value for calculations such as dividend payouts, the market value reflects the actual value of the share in the market. Investors need to consider both values when making investment decisions, as they provide different perspectives on the worth of a share.

The table below summarizes the differences in detail:

Criteria Face Value Market Value

The nominal value of the security set by the issuer.

The current price at which a security is traded in the market.


Fixed at issuance and does not change.

Fluctuates based on supply and demand dynamics in the market.


Used for legal and accounting purposes; basis for calculating interest and dividends.

Represents the current valuation of the security; influences buying and selling decisions.


A bond with a face value of Rs. 1000.

The same bond may trade at Rs. 1050 in the market due to high demand.


As an investor, knowing the face value of a security can help you make informed decisions and evaluate the potential risks and returns. Overall, having a clear understanding of face value is essential for navigating the complex world of finance.

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