Exotic Options: Defination, Types & Differences

ESOPs, or Employee Stock Ownership Plans, are designed to incentivise employees and create a sense of ownership and commitment within the company. This arrangement is mutually beneficial, allowing employees to participate in the company’s success and reap the rewards of their hard work. It also provides companies with a tax-efficient way to distribute ownership and engage employees. In this post, we will discuss the concept in detail, as well as its purpose, benefits, and how it works.

What is ESOP?

An ESOP is an employee benefit plan that allows employees to become company shareholders. It fosters a sense of ownership and alignment with the company’s success. Under this plan, employees are granted shares of company stock, either through direct purchase or as part of their compensation package.

The purpose of an employee stock ownership plan in the corporate structure is twofold. Firstly, it provides employees with a financial stake in the company’s performance, giving them a vested interest in its success. This can motivate employees to work harder and contribute to the company’s growth and profitability.

Secondly, it can be a valuable tool for succession planning and business continuity. As older owners and executives retire, the ESOP can gradually buy their shares, allowing the company to remain in the control of its employees.

How Does an Employee Stock Ownership Plan Work?

An ESOP operates through a step-by-step process that begins with allocating company stock to eligible employees. This can be done through various methods such as direct purchases, contributions from the company, or as part of an employee’s compensation package. Once the stock is allocated, it is subject to a vesting period, a predetermined time frame during which the employee must remain with the company to fully own the shares.

During the vesting period, employees gradually gain ownership rights to their allocated shares based on a predetermined schedule. This schedule can be based on years of service or other performance criteria determined by the company. Once the vesting period is complete, employees can exercise their ownership rights by purchasing the allocated shares at a predetermined price, often at a discount to the market value.

The exercise of options by employees allows them to become full-fledged shareholders and enjoy the benefits of ownership, including voting rights and potential financial gains if the company’s stock value increases. Notably, these plans typically have rules and regulations to prevent the premature sale or transfer of shares, ensuring employees’ long-term commitment and alignment with the company’s goals.

ESOP Initial Costs

The setup and administrative costs of initiating an ESOP can vary depending on several factors. Companies considering this plan should carefully assess these costs to determine if they align with their financial capabilities and long-term goals.

Some initial costs include legal and consulting fees for drafting the employee stock ownership plan document, obtaining necessary regulatory approvals, and ensuring compliance with all applicable laws and regulations. Additionally, companies may need to hire an independent trustee to oversee and provide fiduciary guidance. Ongoing administrative costs may include:

  • Record-keeping.

  • Annual valuations of company stock.

  • Employee communication and education about the ESOP.

Companies must consider these costs alongside the potential benefits of an ESOP, such as enhanced employee engagement, tax advantages, and succession planning. Careful evaluation and thorough financial analysis will help companies implement an employee stock ownership plan that aligns with their strategic objectives and financial resources.

Benefits of ESOP for the Employer

ESOPs, or Employee Stock Ownership Plans, offer a range of benefits for both employers and employees. One significant advantage is the increased employee loyalty resulting from company ownership. When employees have a stake in the organisation’s success, they are more motivated to contribute their best efforts and take pride in their work. This can lead to higher productivity and overall company performance.

From a tax perspective, it can provide significant advantages. Contributions made are tax-deductible for the employer, helping to reduce their tax liability. For employees, the stock received through such plans is not taxed until it is sold, allowing for potential tax savings.

Furthermore, studies have shown that companies with employee stock ownership plans tend to outperform their counterparts. By involving employees in ownership, it creates a culture of shared responsibility and collaboration, fostering a sense of commitment among workers. This can result in improved company performance, innovation, and competitiveness in the market.

Tax Implication of ESOP

In India, the tax treatment of ESOPs plays a crucial role in determining the financial implications for employees. Employees are not subject to any tax liability when exercising the options and acquiring shares. Taxation occurs when the employees sell these shares.

The profit or gain from selling these shares is categorised as capital gains. The taxability of these gains depends on the holding period of the shares. If the shares are held for less than 24 months, they are considered short-term capital assets, and the gains are subject to short-term capital gains tax, calculated at the individual’s applicable income tax slab rate.

On the other hand, if the shares are held for more than 24 months, they are classified as long-term capital assets. In such cases, the gains are subject to long-term capital gains tax, currently levied at a concessional rate of 20% with indexation benefits.

Employees need to understand the specific tax implications and consult with a tax professional to ensure compliance with the tax laws and optimise their tax position. Proper tax planning and awareness of these tax treatments can help individuals make informed decisions regarding exercising and selling these shares.

ESOP Example

Year Number of Shares Granted Vesting Period Exercise Price Market Price at Exercise Profit per Share



4 Years

Rs. 200

Rs. 400

Rs. 200



4 Years

Rs. 200

Rs. 500

Rs. 300



4 Years

Rs. 200

Rs. 600

Rs. 400



4 Years

Rs. 200

Rs. 700

Rs. 500

Note that the actual financial outcome will depend on various factors, including the market conditions and the performance of the company’s shares.

What Happens to ESOPs When the Company is Listed?

When a company goes public, it can have several implications for existing Employee Stock Ownership Plans. One of the key impacts is share dilution, as the company typically issues new shares to raise capital during the initial public offering (IPO). This means that the percentage ownership held by ESOP participants may decrease. However, the overall value of these shares can still increase if the IPO is successful and the company’s stock price rises.

Additionally, going public often entails lock-in periods for employees with vested employee stock ownership plan options. These lock-in periods prevent employees from selling their shares immediately after the IPO, aiming to stabilise the stock price and promote long-term value creation. Once the lock-in period ends, employees may be able to sell their vested options, potentially realising a significant financial gain if the stock price has appreciated.

So, the impact of a company going public on existing ESOPs can result in challenges and opportunities for employees. While share dilution may occur, the potential for financial gain through the stock’s performance and the ability to sell vested options can provide employees with a valuable opportunity to benefit from the company’s growth and success.


As a qualified retirement plan, ESOPs also offer a retirement benefit for employees, making them an attractive option for both parties. However, it is important to understand the complexities and responsibilities of implementing an employee stock ownership plan.

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