Understanding Technical Analysis: A Comprehensive Guide

What do most investors do before purchasing an asset? They research the company issuing the asset in the market. When investment research is based on the price trends of an asset, it is called technical analysis. You can time the market and make informed investments with the help of this type of analysis. Today, we will understand what is technical analysis in its entirety.

What is Technical Analysis?

Technical analysis is a field of study for evaluating assets based on their price trends. It helps find investment opportunities by studying the price and volume trends of financial instruments. Contrary to fundamental analysis, it does not focus on the sales and earnings of the issuing company. It is inclined towards the price movements of the asset in the market over time. Investors can forecast the prices of securities in the market with the help of technical indicators.

Understanding Technical Analysis

To understand the technical analysis meaning in detail, let us delve deeper. It acts as a tool for making informed trading decisions. It helps understand how the supply-demand dynamics will impact the price of the underlying asset. It works on the belief that historical prices of an asset will impact its future price. Investors closely study historical trading data to find patterns and insights.

You might have seen seasoned investors using a range of charts, graphs, and patterns for decision-making. This analysis includes mapping price charts and finding different patterns. You might discover candlestick patterns, triangles, wedges, and others through price trend analysis. These patterns can help predict the direction of the market, thus leading to informed decision-making. Introduced in the late 1800s, it has now become part of the daily analysis of investors.


Technical analysis can be used in different ways to make informed decisions. Retail investors usually rely on candlesticks, triangles, wedges, and other popular patterns in price action analysis. When you map the price trends of an asset on the chart, it refers to price action analysis. Retail investors might make decisions solely based on the patterns. However, seasoned investors often combine fundamentals and these to make informed decisions.

You can use it to evaluate the future price movement of any asset having an associated price. You can use technical analysis indicators for stocks, derivatives, bonds, commodities, currencies, and other instruments. Even though it is more inclined towards price movements, you can use related factors like trading volume or interest rate. You can also use it to enter market positions and exit them timely to earn returns.

Technical Analysis Indicators

How does it reveal future price movements for an asset? It considers historical price movements to discover insights, signals, or patterns. The signals or patterns revealing future price movements are called indicators. You can use trend indicators, like Moving Averages (MA) and Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD), to make decisions. Some investors rely on momentum oscillators to predict the speed of price movements in the market.

Volume and volatility indicators are also used to predict the future trading activity associated with an asset. Support and resistance levels are also among the most used indicators. They can help determine the price levels of an asset from which it has risen or fallen in the past.

These are only a few popular technical analysis indicators used for informed decision-making. Beginners in the stock market must know these basic indicators to accurately predict price movements.

Underlying Assumptions of Technical Analysis

Before indulging in technical analysis, you must assume some things. Charles Dow is one of the first individuals to give the assumptions for this analysis. Besides those basic assumptions, a few have been added over the years. Beginners in the stock market must be familiar with these assumptions, as they might also act as limitations.

The first assumption is that the market discounts everything. It means that all factors are counted in an asset’s price. Fundamentals, investor sentiment, and other factors are already included in an asset’s price. For the same rationale, it believes that the price trend analysis is ample for making informed decisions. Changes in a company’s earnings, reports, and other factors eventually lead to the current price of an asset in the market. The only thing left is to analyse the price movements of the asset to make predictions.

Another assumption is that price movements of assets will show trends. Even though market movements might seem random, there are certain price trends. The future price of an asset will follow historical trends. You must assume that price trends will repeat, irrespective of the time passed for an asset in the market.

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The third and final assumption is that history repeats itself. It means that an asset might follow the same behaviour as earlier in the market. For the same rationale, investors believe in support and resistance levels in the market. If the price of an asset has fallen or risen from a certain point in the past, it might show the same behaviour in the future. Investors use known charts and patterns to predict future price movements because they assume that history repeats itself.”


Even though technical analysis is essential, there are a few limitations. Beginners must understand the limitations before using indicators for decision-making. The basic limitation is the non-usage of fundamentals. You don’t use the company’s earnings reports, sales sheets, balance sheets, and other statements to predict the market. Also, it is based on historical price data, thus not providing accurate predictions at times. It fails for securities having little or no price history. This is why people prefer fundamental analysis for new securities launched in the market. It might also produce false signals, thus leading to poor trading decisions.

Technical Analysis Vs. Fundamental Analysis

Aspect Technical Analysis Fundamental Analysis

Price movements of an asset

Earnings reports, financial statements, company documents


Predicting future price movements using technical indicators

Determining the fair or intrinsic value of an asset in the market

Decision Making

Helps predict future price movements

Prevents overpaying for an asset, determines fair value


Making informed decisions based on price trends

Avoiding overvaluation, determining actual value

Combined Approach

Can be used to predict future movements

Helps understand the underlying value for better decision-making

Use of Public Data

Utilises historical price data, charts, and technical tools

Analyzes publicly available financial information and data

This table outlines the key differences between technical and fundamental analysis, highlighting their focus, purpose, decision-making role, and the use of public data for investment analysis.


Technical analysis allows investors to predict future market movements and make informed decisions. You can predict the future prices of securities based on historical price and volume data. However, you must be aware of the technical indicators offering signals for future price movements. It is crucial to note that it does not consider the factors used in fundamental analysis. Learn about some technical analysis indicators now!

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