What is Share Market – How Does it Work

In the realm of modern finance, a bustling marketplace exists where fortunes are made, companies thrive, and economic landscapes evolve the share market. It represents a dynamic hub where financial instruments change hands, investment opportunities arise, and the pulse of global economies beats. Join us as we embark on an exploration of the share market basics to uncover its essence and significance in the contemporary world of investments and finance.

Understanding the Share Market?

Now let us look into the most crucial question – what is the share market? The share market, commonly referred to as the stock market or equity market, stands as a central pillar in the world of finance. It’s a bustling marketplace where buying, selling, and trading shares of publicly listed companies occur. At its core, the online share market in India represents a platform for individuals, institutions, and businesses to participate in investment activities.

Shares, which are also known as stocks, embody ownership in a company. When investors buy shares, they essentially purchase a portion of that company, entitling them to a stake in its assets and earnings. The value of shares is subject to market fluctuations influenced by various factors such as supply and demand, economic conditions, company performance, and investor sentiment.

The primary purpose of the online share market is to facilitate capital raising for businesses and provide investors with opportunities to grow their wealth. Companies issue shares to raise funds for expansion, innovation, or other ventures. Meanwhile, investors engage in buying shares with the aim of capital appreciation through the potential increase in share prices over time and, in some cases, to receive dividends, which are a portion of a company’s profits distributed to shareholders.

Types of Stock Market

The types of share markets in India broadly encompass various platforms or classifications based on their operational aspects and where securities are traded. These include:

  1. Primary Market

    This market involves the issuance of new securities. Companies or governments directly offer stocks or bonds to investors for the first time. The primary market helps raise capital for these entities.

  2. Secondary Market

    Once securities are issued in the primary market, they are traded in the secondary market among investors. Stock exchanges like the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) are the exchanges where it all takes place in the secondary markets.

  3. Cash Market

    In this market, transactions occur for immediate delivery and payment. It involves the buying and selling of financial instruments like stocks, bonds, or commodities for immediate settlement.

  4. Derivatives Market

    This market deals with financial instruments whose value is derived from the underlying assets. Examples include options, futures, swaps, and contracts for differences (CFDs).

  5. Over-the-Counter (OTC) Market

    It involves securities not listed on formal exchanges. OTC trading occurs directly between parties, facilitated by dealers or brokers.

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  6. Forex (Foreign Exchange) Market

    This market focuses on trading currencies. It’s the largest and most liquid financial market globally, where participants buy, sell, and speculate on various currencies.

Understanding these distinct types of share markets helps investors comprehend the different platforms where securities are traded, each with its own set of regulations, participants, and characteristics.

How Does Share Market Work?

The Indian share market today operates as a platform where buyers and sellers trade ownership in publicly listed companies. Companies issue shares to raise capital, which investors can buy or sell through stock exchanges or over-the-counter markets. Share prices fluctuate based on supply and demand, influenced by factors like company performance, economic conditions, and investor sentiment. When investors buy shares, they become partial owners of the company, potentially benefiting from capital gains if the stock price increases or receiving dividends as a share in profits. This continual interaction between buyers and sellers forms the foundation of the share market’s functionality.

How to invest in the Share Market?

Investing in the online share market investment requires careful planning and informed decision-making. Begin by setting clear investment goals and determining your risk tolerance. Conduct thorough research on companies, industries, and market trends to make informed choices.

Next, open a brokerage account with a reputable firm like Religare Broking that suits your needs. Consider factors like fees, research tools, and customer service. Once the account is set up, allocate funds for investment based on your financial plan.

Diversification is key; spread your investments across various stocks, sectors, or asset classes to manage risk. Continuously monitor your investments, staying updated on market developments and company performance.

Adopt a long-term perspective. Timing the market perfectly is challenging, so focus on the fundamental strengths of the companies you invest in. Regularly review and reassess your portfolio to ensure it aligns with your investment objectives and adjust as necessary. Seeking advice from financial advisors or mentors can also offer valuable guidance in your investment journey.

Share Market Basics & Important Terms

Understanding share market basics and the key terms associated is essential for investors to navigate effectively. Here are some pivotal terms:

  1. Stock

    Represents ownership in a company, offering a proportional claim to its assets and earnings.

  2. Dividend

    A distribution of a portion of a company’s profits to shareholders on a per-share basis.

  3. Market Capitalisation

    Calculated by multiplying a company’s share price by its total outstanding shares, indicating its total value in the market.

  4. Initial Public Offering (IPO)

    This occurs when a company issues shares to the public for the first time, enabling it to raise capital.

  5. Volatility

    Refers to the degree of variation in a stock’s price; higher volatility often implies greater risk.

  6. Bull and Bear Markets

    Bull markets indicate rising prices and investor optimism, while bear markets signify declining prices and pessimism.

  7. Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio)

    Compares a company’s current share price to its earnings per share, aiding in the evaluation of its valuation.

  8. Liquidity

    Indicates how easily shares can be bought or sold without significantly affecting their price.

  9. Blue-chip Stocks

    Refers to shares of well-established, financially stable companies with a history of steady performance.

  10. Market Order vs. Limit Order

    A market order executes immediately at the prevailing market price, while a limit order specifies the price at which an investor is willing to buy or sell.

Familiarising yourself with these terms can empower investors to make more informed decisions and comprehend the complexities of the indian share market today.

Tips for investing in the share market

  1. Research Thoroughly

    Prioritise comprehensive research on companies, industries, and market trends before investing. Understand the company’s fundamentals, financial health, and growth prospects to make informed decisions and mitigate risks effectively.

  2. Diversify Your Portfolio

    Spread your investments across various industries, sectors, and asset classes. Diversification helps manage risk by reducing the impact of volatility on your overall portfolio.

  3. Long-term Perspective

    Adopt a patient approach. Focus on the long-term prospects of your investments rather than attempting to time the market. Avoid emotional reactions to short-term fluctuations and stay committed to your investment strategy.

  4. Regular Monitoring

    Stay informed about market changes and regularly review your portfolio. Monitor company performance, related economic conditions, and global events that may impact your investments. Adjust your portfolio when necessary to align with your financial goals.

  5. Seek Professional Advice

    Consider consulting financial advisors. Their expertise can provide valuable insights, helping you make sound investment decisions aligned with your goals and risk tolerance.

Implementing these tips can enhance your investment strategy, improve decision-making, and potentially lead to more successful outcomes in the share market in India.

Things to consider when buying shares

Before purchasing shares, conducting a thorough analysis of the company’s fundamentals is critical. This involves assessing financial health indicators like revenue growth, earnings stability, and debt levels. Simultaneously, understanding industry trends and market dynamics affecting the company’s performance is essential. Evaluating external factors such as technological advancements and regulatory changes provides valuable insights into predicting its future performance.

Another crucial consideration when buying shares is evaluating the quality of the company’s leadership. Examining the competence, vision, and track record of the management team plays a pivotal role. Strong leadership often influences a company’s success trajectory and determines its long-term direction in the market.

Careful consideration of financial metrics is imperative before investing in shares. Analysing a company’s dividend history and its potential for earnings growth is essential. Assessing the stock’s valuation concerning its earnings, peers, and industry benchmarks, using metrics like the price-to-earnings ratio (P/E ratio), helps determine whether the stock is trading at an undervalued or overvalued price.

Identifying and understanding the risks associated with investing in a specific company is a crucial aspect. Examining market risks, competition, regulatory changes, and geopolitical uncertainties aids in making informed investment decisions. Mitigating these risks is fundamental to reducing potential adverse impacts on investments.

Lastly, evaluating a company’s long-term growth potential and competitive advantages is key. Aligning investment strategies with personal financial goals, be it seeking income, capital appreciation, or a balanced approach, ensures investments resonate with individual objectives. Considering these factors systematically facilitates informed decision-making and aids in creating a well-structured investment portfolio.

Recommended Read: Stock Market Basics


Investing in the share market demands thorough research, assessment of company fundamentals, and an understanding of market dynamics. By evaluating leadership quality, financial metrics, and risk factors while aligning strategies with personal goals, investors and traders can navigate the share market trading more effectively, fostering a well-rounded investment portfolio.

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