What are Equity Shares – Meaning, Types & Future

Equity shares are more than just pieces of paper or digital entries in your investment portfolio. They represent a real part of a company, a slice of its dreams, ambitions, and challenges. When you buy a share, you’re not just investing money, you’re believing in a company’s vision and joining its journey.

In finance, where options abound, equity shares hold a distinct allure, offering both risks and rewards. Let us explore more about equity shares, including their types and the benefits they can provide to your investments. Whether you’re a first-time investor curious about the stock market or looking to deepen your financial knowledge, understanding equity shares is a journey worth embarking on.

What are Equity Shares?

Equity shares are financial instruments representing a portion of a company’s ownership. When investors buy these shares, they purchase a slice of the company’s assets and earnings. As the company grows and prospers, the value of these shares typically increases, offering potential profits to shareholders.

Types of Equity Shares

The stock market can often seem daunting with its vast array of investment options. However, understanding the types of equity shares can provide a clearer roadmap for investors.

Each type of equity share comes with its characteristics, benefits, and considerations. Here, we delve deeper into the four primary categories of equity shares, helping you understand their unique attributes and significance.

Ordinary Shares

Ordinary shares form the base of most company’s capital structures. When you own an ordinary share, you essentially own a company part, including its assets and liabilities.

These shares grant holders the right to voice their opinions in company decisions through voting. Each share equals one vote. These votes can impact important decisions taken in crucial meetings.

Ordinary shareholders have voting rights but may not receive dividends or asset distributions before others. Investors should assess their risk appetite before investing in ordinary shares, as these privileges typically come after meeting other obligations.

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Preference Equity Shares

Preference shares offer a more privileged position compared to ordinary shares. Preference shareholders are given priority in receiving dividends or assets in the event of company liquidation. This means they will likely receive their share of profits or assets before ordinary shareholders.

The ‘preference’ in their name isn’t just for show. These shares provide a cushion of security, especially when distributed dividends, as they typically come with a fixed dividend rate. However, while they offer financial advantages, preference shares often do not grant voting rights, or if they do, they might be limited.

Bonus Shares

Loyalty in investments often reaps its rewards. Bonus shares are a testament to this principle. These are shares distributed freely to existing shareholders based on their existing shares. It’s like a gift, an additional share for every share or a set number of shares owned. Although it does not directly result in immediate cash, it does increase the total holdings of shareholders, potentially enhancing their future returns.

Rights Shares

Rights shares present an exclusive proposition to existing shareholders: the opportunity to buy more shares, often at a price lower than the current market rate. This offer is typically time-bound and proportionate to the number of shares an investor holds.

This allows shareholders to increase their stake in the company without affecting their wallets much. It’s an opportunity to invest more in a company they believe in at a price point that’s often hard to resist.

Features and Advantages of Equity Shares

Equity shares are special in finance because they give shareholders rights and benefits. These features and advantages appeal to both experienced investors and beginners. Let’s delve deeper into the distinctive features and inherent benefits of equity shares that set them apart.

Voting Rights

One of the most empowering features of owning equity shares is the voting rights they bestow upon shareholders. With every share you own, you gain a vote and a voice in the pivotal decisions that shape the company’s future. Your vote matters regarding important company decisions like electing a new board member, considering mergers, or making structural changes.

This active participation offers shareholders a sense of involvement and a direct stake in the company’s growth trajectory.

Admission to Meetings

Being an equity shareholder often comes with an exclusive pass to the company’s annual general meetings (AGMs). These meetings aren’t just formalities but platforms where the company’s leadership discusses past performances, future strategies, and overarching visions.

Shareholders attending AGMs can gain insight into the company’s operations, challenges, and future plans. It’s an opportunity to engage, ask questions, and gain clarity, ensuring their investment aligns with the company’s direction.

Dividend Payments

One of the tangible benefits of owning equity shares is the prospect of dividend payments. As a company registers profits, it often distributes some of these earnings to its shareholders as dividends. While the amount and frequency can vary, dividends serve as a recurring income stream for shareholders, over and above any potential capital appreciation from the shares.

For many, this becomes a compelling reason to invest in equity shares, as it offers immediate returns and long-term growth potential.

Permanence of Equity Shares: An Endless Association

In the financial world, most instruments come with an expiry date, be it bonds maturing or debentures being redeemed. However, equity shares stand out with their enduring nature. They are irredeemable, meaning they don’t have a predetermined expiry or maturity date.

Once you own an equity share, it remains yours indefinitely until you decide to sell it or unless the company opts for a buyback. This permanence allows shareholders to benefit from the company’s long-term growth, riding the waves of its successes for an extended period.

Why Should You Invest in Equity Shares?

The investment landscape has diverse options, each promising unique returns and associated risks. Among these, equity shares have carved a niche, offering financial benefits and strategic advantages. If you’re contemplating investing in equity shares, here’s a deeper exploration of why they might fit your financial aspirations.

High Income

Unlike many fixed-income instruments, which provide a predetermined interest, equity shares offer the allure of unlimited upside. As the underlying company expands its operations, innovates, and captures market share, its profitability often escalates.

This growth directly translates to an increase in the share’s value, resulting in capital appreciation. Investors with keen market observation skills and the ability to make wise stock selections can unearth a goldmine of opportunities through equity shares. These shares have the potential to deliver exceptional returns that surpass those offered by most other financial instruments.

Hedge Against Inflation

Inflation is an often-underestimated adversary for investors. As prices rise, the real value of money diminishes, eroding the worth of one’s savings. Equity shares present a formidable defence against this economic challenge.

The returns from equity investments tend to outstrip inflation rates. This means you make money and protect your investments from inflation. Equity shares protect against inflation and preserve the value of savings over time.

Portfolio Diversification

A cardinal rule of investing is not to concentrate all your investments on a single asset. Diversification is spreading investments across various asset classes to mitigate risks. Equity shares play a pivotal role in this strategy. Adding equity shares to your investment portfolio brings in a new type of asset that carries a different risk and potential return than fixed-income instruments or commodities.

This variance ensures that a downturn in one segment might be counterbalanced by gains in another, leading to overall stability. Diversifying your portfolio by including equity shares can provide a safety net that protects your investments from the ups and downs of specific markets.


One of the most pronounced characteristics of equity shares is their volatility. Unlike fixed-income instruments that offer predetermined returns, the value of equity shares can oscillate, sometimes dramatically, within short time frames.

Several factors fuel this volatility:

Market Conditions

Broad economic trends, interest rate changes, and geopolitical events can influence investor sentiment, leading to market-wide fluctuations.

Recommended Read: Debt-to-Equity Ratio

Company Performance

Company performance, such as quarterly earnings reports, product launches, or important announcements, can greatly impact a company’s share price by either increasing or decreasing it.

External Factors

 Unforeseen events, such as natural disasters, pandemics, or regulatory changes, can impact industries or specific companies, reflecting their share prices.

The Imperative of Informed Decision-Making

Given the unpredictable nature of equity shares, it’s paramount for investors to arm themselves with knowledge. Before plunging into the equity market:

  1. Research is Key: Delve into the company’s financial health, its competitive position in the industry, management quality, and growth prospects. While not a guarantee, analysing past performance can provide insights into its future potential.

  2. Stay Updated: Keeping abreast of market news and trends can prepare investors for potential market swings, allowing them to make timely decisions.

  3. Diversification: Avoid concentrating your investments on a single stock or sector. Spreading investments can mitigate the impact of a poor-performing asset on the overall portfolio.


Equity shares offer a route into the corporate world, granting investors a stake in a company’s future. While they promise numerous advantages like voting rights, potential dividends, and capital appreciation, they also come with risks. As with all investments, it’s imperative to approach equity shares with knowledge, caution, and a clear strategy.


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